Ian M. Sanne, MBBCH, FCP(SA); Lesley Erica Scott, BSc Hons, MSc, PhD; Wendy Susan Stevens, MD
Editor in Chief: Ian M. Sanne, MBBCH, FCP(SA) (More Info)
Last Reviewed: July 8, 2016 (What's New)
inPractice® Africa’s Continuing Education Unit (CEU) provider, the South African Medical Association, offers physicians 3 CPD points on a 70% pass rate for completing this individual module. Nonphysicians who successfully complete the module will receive a participation certificate. To learn more on CPD credits and participation certificates, click here.
The UNAIDS Global Report for World AIDS Day 2015 reported that worldwide, an average of 2 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2014.[UNAIDS 2015] In the same year, an estimated 25.8 million people living with HIV resided in sub-Saharan Africa, representing 70% of the global HIV burden.[UNAIDS 2015]
UNAIDS estimated that 15.8 million people living with HIV had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as of June 2015.[UNAIDS 2015] In South Africa, an estimated 6.8 million individuals are living with HIV, with an estimated 3.1 million infected individuals currently accessing HIV care and treatment, which is 45% of those infected. The South African National Strategic Plan strongly supports ensuring access to universal HIV testing and tuberculosis screening for all South Africans with a strong emphasis being placed on early diagnosis.[NSP 2012-2017] There is also a focus placed on health and wellness programmes for those infected and further attempts to increase access to treatment, particularly in the pre-ART group where loss to follow-up remains high.[Clouse 2013a; Clouse 2013b] Each of these programmes for HIV-infected patients (screening, wellness follow-up, and ART) requires an infrastructure to support laboratory monitoring that is managed in a tiered fashion (level 1: primary laboratory; level 2: district laboratory; level 3: regional provincial laboratory; and level 4: national reference laboratory) as outlined by the Maputo declaration.[Maputo 2008] In the public sector in South Africa, this laboratory monitoring is managed through the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) (http://www.nhls.ac.za), which provides service to over 80% of the population. Testing for HIV in individuals presenting to the healthcare system follows South Africa National Department of Health Guidelines (Management Guidelines)[ZA NDOH HIV Tx 2015] and World Health Organisation guidance (Management Guidelines).[WHO ART 2013]
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