World Health Organisation
Publication Date: January 1, 2011
2011 guidance from the World Health Organisation on caring for infants and children infected with or exposed to HIV. Topics covered include: common childhood illnesses and opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children; cough or difficulty breathing, including differential diagnosis, pneumonia, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary tuberculosis infection, bronchiectasis, and cytomegalovirus infection; diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal problems, including persistent diarrhoea and hepatitis; fever; sepsis; malnutrition; anaemia and other haematologic conditions; paediatric HIV care and treatment; diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children, including early identification of HIV, diagnosis in breast-feeding infants, and counselling; routine care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants and children, including immunisations, prophylaxis, nutrition, and infant feeding counselling and support; antiretroviral therapy in infants and children, including when to start, first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens, clinical and laboratory monitoring, adherence, drug toxicity, inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome, drug substitutions for toxicity, and defining treatment failure; nutritional support, including special considerations for HIV infection, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV via breast-feeding, increased energy requirements of HIV-infected children, steps for assessing child feeding, caregiver counselling, and management of severly malnourished HIV-infected children; pain management in HIV-infected children, including recognition, assessment, and management of pain; and disclosure and psychosocial support for children, including adherence for treatment, support for development, and support for special circumstances.
Keywords: HIV - Adherence, HIV - Adverse Events, HIV - Cytomegalovirus (CMV), HIV - Diagnosis, HIV - Diarrhoea, HIV - First-line Therapy, HIV - Haematologic Complications, HIV - Hepatic Complications, HIV - IRIS, HIV - Monitoring, HIV - Paediatric/Adolescent Patients, HIV - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), HIV - Prevention, HIV - Psychosocial Issues, HIV - Resource-Limited Settings, HIV - Special Populations, HIV - Switch Strategies, HIV - Treatment Complications, HIV - Treatment-Experienced Patients, HIV - Tuberculosis, HIV - Viral Hepatitis Coinfection