Hospice Palliative Care Association of South Africa
Publication Date: August 1, 2012
2012 guidelines designed to provide recommendations on palliative needs assessment, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic symptom management, how to explain the goals of treatment to patients and family members, and involving the interdisciplinary team or referring to a more experienced clinician when necessary. Topics addressed include: ethical considerations; World Health Organisation definition of palliative care; guidelines for pain management, including pain assessment and management, bone pain, neuropathic pain, incident pain, muscle spasm, myoclonus, and dystonia; management of respiratory symptoms, including breathlessness, cough, hiccup, and oxygen therapy; management of gastrointestinal symptoms, including dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, intestinal obstruction, ascites, diarrhoea, and constipation; constitutional symptoms, including anorexia, asthenia, cachexia, fever, and sweating; infective symptoms, including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and neutropaenic sepsis; management of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including delirium, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and convulsions; management of urinary symptoms, including incontinence, urinary tract infection, urinary haemorrhage, and bladder and ureteric spasm; guidelines for pressure care and wound care; the terminal phase; vascular and haematologic disorders, including anaemia and blood transfusions, lymphoedema, and thromboembolism; palliative care emergencies, including haemorrhage, hypercalcaemia, spinal cord compression, and superior vena cava obstruction; general aspects of mouth care; and specific aspects of oral care.
Keywords: HIV - Adverse Events, HIV - Diarrhoea, HIV - Haematologic Complications, HIV - IRIS, HIV - Neurologic Complications, HIV - Neutropenia, HIV - Paediatric/Adolescent Patients, HIV - Psychiatric Disorders, HIV - Psychosocial Issues, HIV - Quality of Life, HIV - Resource-Limited Settings